Gabriella Levine

ongoing and past work
understanding networks

Moving onto the mega (++ sensors, no computer, data to the server)

A note about the Mega and the spi library: (for use with the SD card and ethernet shield)
On Arduino MEGA, SPI bus uses pins 51 (MOSI), 52(SCK), 50(MISO), and 53(SS)

Sensors include: humidity, barometric, light, temp, gps, rtc, accelerometer, more to come…

connects to a graph:
logs sensor data to a text file which gets written to a server: www.levinegabriella.com/understanding_networks/dataLogger.php
www.levinegabriella.com/understanding_networks/Temp_applet_js

<code>/*
Web client

This sketch connects to a website (http://www.google.com)
using an Arduino Wiznet Ethernet shield.

Circuit:
* Ethernet shield attached to pins 10, 11, 12, 13

created 18 Dec 2009
by David A. Mellis

*/
#include <Wire.h>
#include <SPI.h>
#include <Ethernet.h>
#include "RTClib.h"
#include <SD.h>

#define BMP085_ADDRESS 0x77 // I2C address of BMP085
const unsigned char OSS = 0; // Oversampling Setting
// Calibration values
int ac1;
int ac2;
int ac3;
unsigned int ac4;
unsigned int ac5;
unsigned int ac6;
int b1;
int b2;
int mb;
int mc;
int md;
// b5 is calculated in bmp085GetTemperature(...), this variable is also used in bmp085GetPressure(...)
// so ...Temperature(...) must be called before ...Pressure(...).
long b5;

short temperature;
long pressure;

// Enter a MAC address for your controller below.
// Newer Ethernet shields have a MAC address printed on a sticker on the shield
byte mac[] = {
0x00, 0xAA, 0xBB, 0xCC, 0xDE, 0x03 };
IPAddress server(69,89,31,63); // my IP server
const int requestInterval = 30000;
long lastAttemptTime = 0; // last time you connected to the server, in milliseconds
boolean requested;
const int resetLED = 13;
float temp;
float voltage;
// Initialize the Ethernet client library
// with the IP address and port of the server
// that you want to connect to (port 80 is default for HTTP):

const int chipSelect = 53;//changed from 8
const int LOCATION_FILE_NUMBER_LSB = 0x00;
const int LOCATION_FILE_NUMBER_MSB = 0x01;

File dataFile;
RTC_DS1307 RTC;
EthernetClient client;
DateTime now;

int ledPin = 13; // LED test pin to determine if we are successfully writing gps strings to a text file
int ledState = LOW;

int rxPin = 0; // RX PIN
int txPin = 1; // TX TX

void setup() {
pinMode(ledPin, OUTPUT); // Initialize LED pin
pinMode(rxPin, INPUT);
pinMode(txPin, OUTPUT);
// start the serial library:
Serial.begin(38400);
pinMode(A2, OUTPUT);
pinMode(A3, OUTPUT);
// A2 is the ground, A3 is the power:
digitalWrite(A2, LOW);
digitalWrite(A3, HIGH);
pinMode(chipSelect, OUTPUT);

if (!SD.begin(chipSelect)) {
Serial.println("Card failed, or not present");
// don't do anything more:

}
Serial.println("card initialized.");

Wire.begin();
RTC.begin();
delay(50);
bmp085Calibration();
if (! RTC.isrunning()) {
Serial.println("RTC is NOT running!");
// following line sets the RTC to the date & time this sketch was compiled
RTC.adjust(DateTime(__DATE__, __TIME__));
}
dataFile = SD.open("data.txt", FILE_WRITE);
delay(500);

// start the Ethernet connection:
Ethernet.begin(mac);
if (Ethernet.begin(mac) == 0) {
Serial.println("Failed to configure Ethernet using DHCP");
// no point in carrying on, so do nothing forevermore:
// for(;;)
// ;
}

// connectToServer();
// give the Ethernet shield a second to initialize:
delay(1500);
blink(resetLED, 3);
Serial.println("connecting...");
connectToServer();
}

// Stores all of the bmp085's calibration values into global variables
// Calibration values are required to calculate temp and pressure
// This function should be called at the beginning of the program
void bmp085Calibration()
{
ac1 = bmp085ReadInt(0xAA);
ac2 = bmp085ReadInt(0xAC);
ac3 = bmp085ReadInt(0xAE);
ac4 = bmp085ReadInt(0xB0);
ac5 = bmp085ReadInt(0xB2);
ac6 = bmp085ReadInt(0xB4);
b1 = bmp085ReadInt(0xB6);
b2 = bmp085ReadInt(0xB8);
mb = bmp085ReadInt(0xBA);
mc = bmp085ReadInt(0xBC);
md = bmp085ReadInt(0xBE);
}

void loop()
{
temperature = bmp085GetTemperature(bmp085ReadUT());
pressure = bmp085GetPressure(bmp085ReadUP());
now = RTC.now();
if(client.connected()){
if(!requested){

requested = makeRequest();
// Serial.println("requesting!");
}
if(millis() - lastAttemptTime>requestInterval){
//if youre not connected and two minutes have passed, attempt to connect again
client.stop();
// Serial.println("stopping and reconnecting!");

// getData();
delay(1500);
//connectToServer();
}
// if there are incoming bytes available
// from the server, read them and print them:

}

if (client.available()) {
char c = client.read();
// Serial.print(c);
}

// if the server's disconnected, stop the client:
if (!client.connected()) {
// Serial.println();
// Serial.println("disconnecting.");

client.stop();
delay(1500);
if(millis() - lastAttemptTime>requestInterval){
//if youre not connected and two minutes have passed, attempt to connect again
connectToServer();
//try to reconnect here...
}
}

}

void getData(){
voltage = 5 * analogRead(A0) / 1024.0;
//float temp = 5 * analogRead(A1) / 1024.0;
temp=(analogRead(A1))/10;

if(Serial.available()>0){
byte gps=Serial.read(); //echo incoming gps data
Serial.write(gps);

if (dataFile) {
digitalWrite(ledPin, HIGH);//turn on the status led
DateTime now = RTC.now();
dataFile.write(gps);
dataFile.print(now.month());
dataFile.print('/');
dataFile.print(now.day());
dataFile.print('/');
dataFile.print(now.year());
dataFile.print(F(","));
dataFile.print(now.hour());
dataFile.print(F(":"));
dataFile.print(now.minute());
dataFile.print(F(":"));
dataFile.print(now.second());
dataFile.print(F(","));
dataFile.print(voltage);
dataFile.print(F(","));
dataFile.print(temp);
dataFile.print(temperature);
dataFile.print(F(","));
dataFile.print(pressure);
dataFile.println();

}

dataFile.flush();
}
else{digitalWrite(ledPin, LOW);}

}

void connectToServer(){
// Serial.println("connecting to server...");
if (client.connect(server, 80)) {
requested = false;
}

lastAttemptTime = millis();
}

boolean makeRequest() {
// Serial.println("requesting");
getData();
// Make a HTTP request:

client.print("GET /understanding_networks/dataLogger.php?data=");
client.print(now.month());
client.print('/');
client.print(now.day());
client.print('/');
client.print(now.year());
client.print(F(","));
client.print(now.hour());
client.print(F(":"));
client.print(now.minute());
client.print(F(":"));
client.print(now.second());
client.print(F(","));
client.print(voltage);
client.print(F(","));
client.print(temp);
client.print(F(","));
client.print(temperature);
client.print(F(","));
client.print(pressure);
client.println(" HTTP/1.1 ");
client.println("HOST: www.levinegabriella.com");

client.println();
return true;

}

// Calculate temperature given ut.
// Value returned will be in units of 0.1 deg C
short bmp085GetTemperature(unsigned int ut)
{
long x1, x2;

x1 = (((long)ut - (long)ac6)*(long)ac5) >> 15;
x2 = ((long)mc << 11)/(x1 + md);
b5 = x1 + x2;

return ((b5 + 8)>>4);
}

// Calculate pressure given up
// calibration values must be known
// b5 is also required so bmp085GetTemperature(...) must be called first.
// Value returned will be pressure in units of Pa.
long bmp085GetPressure(unsigned long up)
{
long x1, x2, x3, b3, b6, p;
unsigned long b4, b7;

b6 = b5 - 4000;
// Calculate B3
x1 = (b2 * (b6 * b6)>>12)>>11;
x2 = (ac2 * b6)>>11;
x3 = x1 + x2;
b3 = (((((long)ac1)*4 + x3)<<OSS) + 2)>>2;

// Calculate B4
x1 = (ac3 * b6)>>13;
x2 = (b1 * ((b6 * b6)>>12))>>16;
x3 = ((x1 + x2) + 2)>>2;
b4 = (ac4 * (unsigned long)(x3 + 32768))>>15;

b7 = ((unsigned long)(up - b3) * (50000>>OSS));
if (b7 < 0x80000000)
p = (b7<<1)/b4;
else
p = (b7/b4)<<1;

x1 = (p>>8) * (p>>8);
x1 = (x1 * 3038)>>16;
x2 = (-7357 * p)>>16;
p += (x1 + x2 + 3791)>>4;

return p;
}

// Read 1 byte from the BMP085 at 'address'
char bmp085Read(unsigned char address)
{
unsigned char data;

Wire.beginTransmission(BMP085_ADDRESS);
Wire.write(address);
Wire.endTransmission();

Wire.requestFrom(BMP085_ADDRESS, 1);
while(!Wire.available())
;

return Wire.read();
}

// Read 2 bytes from the BMP085
// First byte will be from 'address'
// Second byte will be from 'address'+1
int bmp085ReadInt(unsigned char address)
{
unsigned char msb, lsb;

Wire.beginTransmission(BMP085_ADDRESS);
Wire.write(address);
Wire.endTransmission();

Wire.requestFrom(BMP085_ADDRESS, 2);
while(Wire.available()<2)
;
msb = Wire.read();
lsb = Wire.read();

return (int) msb<<8 | lsb;
}

// Read the uncompensated temperature value
unsigned int bmp085ReadUT()
{
unsigned int ut;

// Write 0x2E into Register 0xF4
// This requests a temperature reading
Wire.beginTransmission(BMP085_ADDRESS);
Wire.write(0xF4);
Wire.write(0x2E);
Wire.endTransmission();

// Wait at least 4.5ms
delay(5);

// Read two bytes from registers 0xF6 and 0xF7
ut = bmp085ReadInt(0xF6);
return ut;
}

// Read the uncompensated pressure value
unsigned long bmp085ReadUP()
{
unsigned char msb, lsb, xlsb;
unsigned long up = 0;

// Write 0x34+(OSS<<6) into register 0xF4
// Request a pressure reading w/ oversampling setting
Wire.beginTransmission(BMP085_ADDRESS);
Wire.write(0xF4);
Wire.write(0x34 + (OSS<<6));
Wire.endTransmission();

// Wait for conversion, delay time dependent on OSS
delay(2 + (3<<OSS));

// Read register 0xF6 (MSB), 0xF7 (LSB), and 0xF8 (XLSB)
Wire.beginTransmission(BMP085_ADDRESS);
Wire.write(0xF6);
Wire.endTransmission();
Wire.requestFrom(BMP085_ADDRESS, 3);

// Wait for data to become available
while(Wire.available() < 3)
;
msb = Wire.read();
lsb = Wire.read();
xlsb = Wire.read();

up = (((unsigned long) msb << 16) | ((unsigned long) lsb << 8) | (unsigned long) xlsb) >> (8-OSS);

return up;
}

void blink(int thisPin, int howManyTimes){
for (int blinks = 0;blinks<howManyTimes;blinks++){
digitalWrite(thisPin, HIGH);
delay(200);
digitalWrite(thisPin, LOW);
delay(200);
}
}

//questions: what other sensors will be good?
//what is too much data
//i seem to be making my request twice

//when my request interval is more than 5000 i get
//10/13/2011,11:14:56,3.67,15.00
//10/13/2011,11:15:5,3.65,15.00
//10/13/2011,11:15:16,0.00,0.00
//10/13/2011,11:15:44,0.00,0.00
//why

//can you go back a directory

//try it? overwhelm maybe... w/ gps
//implem. timer
</code>

Logging data remotely to the web, no computer

So I switched over the client to here: http://levinegabriella.com/understanding_networks/liveApplet/

(I have to figure out why no text is appearing on the graph – i had temperature and light and date markers)

the php server is written here: http://levinegabriella.com/understanding_networks/dataLogger.php

The server reads and writes to a text file here: http://www.levinegabriella.com/understanding_networks/liveApplet/DATAcl.TXT

See code below for Arduino and php and processing

Next step: The day I left NY my dataLogging Arduino “crashed”, after working for a week . It could have been any number of things. The SD card, the server, a short?
Try Pachube, and Watch Dog to restart Arduino if it crashes.
Can i do some virtual debugging?

Also, Arduino UNO ran out of space (the functions include: data logger, ethernet connection to a server, temp sensor, light sensor, real time clock – But there are many more sensors on board (gps, humidity, accelerometer, barometric pressure) so I’ve moved everything over to the MEGA. Had to rearrange the SPI / I2C pin connections, but besides that it’s all good.

(all the code (php, processing, arduino) can also be downloaded here)

More to come…

<?php
// put the name and path of the text file in a variable.
// this is the text file where we'll store the data:
$filename = 'liveApplet/DATAcl.TXT';

//make sure the file is not empty:
if (file_exists($filename)) {
// get the contents of the file
// and put them in a variable called $fileContents:
$fileContents = file_get_contents($filename);

// if there is new data from the client, it'll
// be in a request parameter called "data".
if (isset($_REQUEST['data'])) {
// append what the client sent as 'data' to
// the variable holding the file contents:
$fileContents = $fileContents . "\n". $_REQUEST['data'];
// put the file contents back into the file
// you're overwriting the whole file when you do this:
file_put_contents($filename, $fileContents);
} else {
// there was no data sent in the request
// so show the old stuff:
// echo '<p>' . $fileContents . '</p>';
//split the string of the newLines:
$strings = explode("\n", $fileContents);
//loop over the array of the lines, adding a break at the end of each
foreach ($strings as $thisString){
echo $thisString . "<br/>\n";
}
}
}
?>

Arduino:
[/python]
/*
Web client

This sketch connects to a website (http://www.google.com)
using an Arduino Wiznet Ethernet shield.

Circuit:
* Ethernet shield attached to pins 10, 11, 12, 13

created 18 Dec 2009
by David A. Mellis

*/
#include
#include
#include
#include “RTClib.h”
#include

// Enter a MAC address for your controller below.
// Newer Ethernet shields have a MAC address printed on a sticker on the shield
byte mac[] = {
0×00, 0xAA, 0xBB, 0xCC, 0xDE, 0×03 };
IPAddress server(69,89,31,63); // my IP server
const int requestInterval = 30000;
long lastAttemptTime = 0; // last time you connected to the server, in milliseconds
boolean requested;
const int resetLED = 13;
float temp;
float voltage;
// Initialize the Ethernet client library
// with the IP address and port of the server
// that you want to connect to (port 80 is default for HTTP):

const int chipSelect = 4;//changed from 8
const int LOCATION_FILE_NUMBER_LSB = 0×00;
const int LOCATION_FILE_NUMBER_MSB = 0×01;

File dataFile;
RTC_DS1307 RTC;
EthernetClient client;
DateTime now;

void setup() {
// start the serial library:
Serial.begin(9600);
pinMode(A2, OUTPUT);
pinMode(A3, OUTPUT);
// A2 is the ground, A3 is the power:
digitalWrite(A2, LOW);
digitalWrite(A3, HIGH);
pinMode(10, OUTPUT);

if (!SD.begin(chipSelect)) {
Serial.println(“Card failed, or not present”);
// don’t do anything more:

}
Serial.println(“card initialized.”);

Wire.begin();
RTC.begin();
delay(50);
if (! RTC.isrunning()) {
Serial.println(“RTC is NOT running!”);
// following line sets the RTC to the date & time this sketch was compiled
RTC.adjust(DateTime(__DATE__, __TIME__));
}
dataFile = SD.open(“data.txt”, FILE_WRITE);
delay(500);

// start the Ethernet connection:
Ethernet.begin(mac);
if (Ethernet.begin(mac) == 0) {
Serial.println(“Failed to configure Ethernet using DHCP”);
// no point in carrying on, so do nothing forevermore:
for(;;)
;
}

// connectToServer();
// give the Ethernet shield a second to initialize:
delay(1500);
blink(resetLED, 3);
Serial.println(“connecting…”);
connectToServer();
}

void loop()
{

now = RTC.now();
if(client.connected()){
if(!requested){

requested = makeRequest();
// Serial.println(“requesting!”);
}
if(millis() – lastAttemptTime>requestInterval){
//if youre not connected and two minutes have passed, attempt to connect again
client.stop();
// Serial.println(“stopping and reconnecting!”);

// getData();
delay(1500);
//connectToServer();
}
// if there are incoming bytes available
// from the server, read them and print them:

}

if (client.available()) {
char c = client.read();
// Serial.print(c);
}

// if the server’s disconnected, stop the client:
if (!client.connected()) {
// Serial.println();
// Serial.println(“disconnecting.”);

client.stop();
delay(1500);
if(millis() – lastAttemptTime>requestInterval){
//if youre not connected and two minutes have passed, attempt to connect again
connectToServer();
//try to reconnect here…
}
}

}

void getData(){
voltage = 5 * analogRead(A0) / 1024.0;
//float temp = 5 * analogRead(A1) / 1024.0;
temp=(analogRead(A1))/10;

// Serial.print(voltage);
// Serial.print(F(“,”));
// Serial.print(temp);
// Serial.print(F(“,”));
// Serial.println(” “);
//
if (dataFile) {
DateTime now = RTC.now();

dataFile.print(now.month());
dataFile.print(‘/’);
dataFile.print(now.day());
dataFile.print(‘/’);
dataFile.print(now.year());
dataFile.print(F(“,”));
dataFile.print(now.hour());
dataFile.print(F(“:”));
dataFile.print(now.minute());
dataFile.print(F(“:”));
dataFile.print(now.second());
dataFile.print(F(“,”));
dataFile.print(voltage);
dataFile.print(F(“,”));
dataFile.print(temp);
dataFile.println();

}
dataFile.flush();

}

void connectToServer(){
// Serial.println(“connecting to server…”);
if (client.connect(server, 80)) {
requested = false;
}

lastAttemptTime = millis();
}

boolean makeRequest() {
// Serial.println(“requesting”);
getData();
// Make a HTTP request:

client.print(“GET /understanding_networks/dataLogger.php?data=”);
client.print(now.month());
client.print(‘/’);
client.print(now.day());
client.print(‘/’);
client.print(now.year());
client.print(F(“,”));
client.print(now.hour());
client.print(F(“:”));
client.print(now.minute());
client.print(F(“:”));
client.print(now.second());
client.print(F(“,”));
client.print(voltage);
client.print(F(“,”));
client.print(temp);
client.println(” HTTP/1.1 “);
client.println(“HOST: www.levinegabriella.com”);

client.println();
return true;

}

void blink(int thisPin, int howManyTimes){
for (int blinks = 0;blinks digitalWrite(thisPin, HIGH);
delay(200);
digitalWrite(thisPin, LOW);
delay(200);
}
}

//questions: what other sensors will be good?
//what is too much data
//i seem to be making my request twice

//when my request interval is more than 5000 i get
//10/13/2011,11:14:56,3.67,15.00
//10/13/2011,11:15:5,3.65,15.00
//10/13/2011,11:15:16,0.00,0.00
//10/13/2011,11:15:44,0.00,0.00
//why

//can you go back a directory
[/python]

How to get data on the internet without a computer

I did this using the Arduino ethernet shield.

Below is the script for the server that Arduino calls in its HTTP request.

The server has the following function: if there is data added to it through a GET request, it stores that data in a text file (called datalog.txt) that is also on the same server. That way my sensor data can be stored as a text file. Secondly, when the server is called with no request, it shows the text of the text file. This way, I can write a program to pull the data from that website and graph it (processing.js, perhaps… more to come later this week on that).

click here for a text file of the code in case it is not showing up correctly below

<?php
// put the name and path of the text file in a variable.
// this is the text file where we'll store the data:
$filename = 'datalog.txt';

//make sure the file is not empty:
if (file_exists($filename)) {
       // get the contents of the file
       // and put them in a variable called $fileContents:
       $fileContents = file_get_contents($filename);

       // if there is new data from the client, it'll
       // be in a request parameter called "data".
       if (isset($_REQUEST['data'])) {
               // append what the client sent as 'data' to
               // the variable holding the file contents:
               $fileContents = $fileContents . "\n". $_REQUEST['data'];
               // put the file contents back into the file
               // you're overwriting the whole file when you do this:
               file_put_contents($filename, $fileContents);
       } else {
               // there was no data sent in the request
               // so show the old stuff:
               echo $fileContents;
       }
}
?>

From the Arduino side, this is the code I use, for now, to append my text file. It is adapted from the example WebClient in the Ethernet library on Arduino.

I just had to enter my MAC address of the ethernet shield and the IP address of the server I am making the request to.

The next step will be to continually make requests as sensor data comes in, to have a legible CSV.

/*
  Web client
 
 This sketch connects to a website (http://www.google.com)
 using an Arduino Wiznet Ethernet shield. 
 
 Circuit:
 * Ethernet shield attached to pins 10, 11, 12, 13
 
 created 18 Dec 2009
 by David A. Mellis
 
 */

#include <SPI.h>
#include <Ethernet.h>

// Enter a MAC address for your controller below.
// Newer Ethernet shields have a MAC address printed on a sticker on the shield
byte mac[] = { 0x00, 0xAA, 0xBB, 0xCC, 0xDE, 0x03 };
IPAddress server(69,89,31,63); // Google

// Initialize the Ethernet client library
// with the IP address and port of the server 
// that you want to connect to (port 80 is default for HTTP):
EthernetClient client;

void setup() {
  // start the serial library:
  Serial.begin(9600);
  // start the Ethernet connection:
  if (Ethernet.begin(mac) == 0) {
    Serial.println("Failed to configure Ethernet using DHCP");
    // no point in carrying on, so do nothing forevermore:
    for(;;)
      ;
  }
  // give the Ethernet shield a second to initialize:
  delay(1000);
  Serial.println("connecting...");

  // if you get a connection, report back via serial:
  if (client.connect(server, 80)) {
    Serial.println("connected");
    // Make a HTTP request:
    client.println("GET /understanding_networks/dataLogger.php?data=it_works_yay HTTP/1.1");
    client.println("HOST: www.levinegabriella.com");
   // client.println("GET /understanding_networks/dataLogger.php?data=1233212321232123 HTTP/1.0");
  // http://www.levinegabriella.com/understanding_networks/dataLogger.php?data=123
    client.println();
  } 
  else {
    // kf you didn't get a connection to the server:
    Serial.println("connection failed");
  }
}

void loop()
{
  // if there are incoming bytes available 
  // from the server, read them and print them:
  if (client.available()) {
    char c = client.read();
    Serial.print(c);
  }

  // if the server's disconnected, stop the client:
  if (!client.connected()) {
    Serial.println();
    Serial.println("disconnecting.");
    client.stop();

    // do nothing forevermore:
    for(;;)
      ;
  }
}